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1.       What is ethics, and how can it be distinguished from morality?


Ethics is the study of Morality while Morality is a system of regulations for guiding human behavior and principles for evaluating those regulations.


2.       What is meant by a moral system? What are some of the key differences between the "rules of conduct" and the "principles of evaluation" that compromise a moral system?


A moral system is a way to help people grow as a human being. “Rules of conduct” focuses on orders. “Principle of Evaluation” is an evaluative principles used to defend rules of conduct.


3.       What does Bernard Gert mean when he describes morality in terms of a "public system"? Why is the notion of "personal morality" and oxymoron?


The system is public, Bernard Gert described morality in terms of a public system because he implied that it is a must that all people should understand and know the rules in order to attain the goal.


4.       Why does Gert believe that morality is an "informal" system? How is a moral system both similar to, and different from, a game?


Morality is informal because, Gert points out a moral system have no formal authoritative judges presiding over it.


5.       Describe how the ideals of "rationality" and "impartiality" function in Gert's moral system.     


Rationality does not require morality; however, it does require that we avoid harming ourselves without a reason. Impartiality is a system wherein it does not allow an individual to be favored alone.          


6.       What are the values and what are some of the key differences between moral values and non-moral values?


Moral Values are values which are for the benefit of the common people while non-moral values are values which are for ones’ self/self interest.


7.       How do religion, law, and philosophy each provide different grounds for justifying a moral principle?


Religion – compliance to divine power

                        Law – compliance to authorized system

                        Philosophy – moral theory and sound argument


8.       What is the method of philosophical ethics and what is a philosophical study?


A philosophical study is a study of whether something is neither good nor bad. It helps us in our decision making process


9.       How does philosophical study differ from a descriptive study? Rather than normative in nature?


A philosophical study is a study of whether something is neither good nor bad. It helps us in our decision making process while descriptive study is An investigation aimed at ascertaining the status of a set of variables, such as the number and variety of persons with specific conditions in a specified population, but without any critical analysis or attempt to test casual hypotheses, is known as a descriptive study.


Source: http://www.answers.com/topic/descriptive-study


10.   Summarize the four diff. kinds of "discussion stoppers" in ethical discourse.


1.   Who am I to critic others?

2.     Morality is simply a matter for human being cultures to determine

3.     Morality is simply a confidential matter

4.     People disagree on solutions to ethical issues.


11.   Why are these discussion stoppers problematic for the advancement of dialogue and debate about ethical issues?


It blocks and hinders the conversation on resolving ethical issues.


12.   What is moral relativism? How is it different from cultural relativism?


Moral relativism is the view that ethical standards, morality, and positions of right or wrong are 

                        culturally based

 and therefore subject to a person's individual choice.


Source: http://www.moral-relativism.com/


13.   What is ethical theory, and what important functions do ethical theories play in the analysis of moral issues?


Ethical theories are views that help us overcome our problems in our daily lives. It serves as a guideline in order for us to be logical, stable, broad and organized in every aspect of our lives.


14.   What are the distinguishing features of consequence-based ethical theories?


Every wrong action done should correspond to a consequence.


15.   Describe some of the key features between act and rule utilitarianism.


Act utilitarianism is all about the majority while Rule utilitarianism is like a selfish rule that will rule and eliminate majority and finalizes a bad consequence


16.   Which feature distinguishes duty-based ethical theories from alternative types of theories?


Human being are created in own unique way/process. We have all the right and freedom to do what we want unless it will not harm others.


17.   Describe some of the main differences between act deontology and rule deontology.


Act deontology and Rule deontology has a similar point except for one. That is for Rule deontology, everybody should be treated equally no one should be left alone while for act deontology is vice-versa.


18.   What is meant by the expression contract-based ethical theories?


Contract based ethical theories simply that it is a moral system that comes into being by virtue of certain contractual agreements between each individual.


19.   What features distinguish character based ethical theories from alternative schemes of morality?


Character-based ethical theory is self centered. It focuses more on assessing its own rather than facing consequences.


20.   How does James Moor's "Just consequentialist" theory incorporate aspects of utilitarianism and deontological theories into one comprehensive framework?


Simply follow the follow the rules/natural order.





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